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Sabtu, 21 November 2009

THE FORMING OF ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR BASED ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY THROUGH CURRICULUM OF INFORMATION SYSTEM WITHIN EDUCATION

DR. Hansiswany Kamarga, M.Pd.
A Case Study in the Subject of Curriculum Development at Master's Degree, Indonesia University of Education. 

Created by: Dr. Hansiswany Kamarga, M.Pd. 
School of Postgraduate, Indonesia University of Education

ABSTRACT
This research is concerned with the use of blended & e-learning to develop of attitude and behaviour based on information technology at Master Program in Curriculum Development. On one hand, the curriculum of Master Program in Curriculum Development requires the achievement of mastering the information technology, but on the other hand majority of students feel unfamiliar with information technology itself and they don't feel the urge to learn since at where they come from internet technology hasn't been improved thus doesn't have an ideal infrastructure yet. The basic of this research is the usage of blended & e-learning, combining knowledge of information technology, skill in seeking for learning source and in developing learning based on information technology, enable this research to be qualitatively measured whether attitude and behavior based on information technology is forming within students.

The purpose of this study was to observe the forming of attitude and behavior based on information technology after doing the learning using blended and e-learning model.

In order to achieve our goal, this research is done by using qualitative case study approach. The type of learning used in this research is blended & e-learning, combining face to face model (conventional), internet usage in class (synchronous), and distance learning (asynchronous). The proportion in learning activity is 40% knowledge and 60% skill. The knowledge learning is focused on direct knowledge which connected with information technology usage, while skill learning is focused on source finding and developing information technology based learning model. The research’s design use naturalistic inquiry approach, where aspects of students’ behavior toward learning by using information technology, students’ behavior toward information technology usage, students’ skill in seeking information sources in the internet (browsing), student’s skill in developing learning based on information technology, measured by the implementation of blended and e-learning model. The subjects for this research are 18 students who register Information System within Education subject. The instruments used are observation sheets, test, and structured tasks. Data is collected during research and analyzed through qualitative approach.

The achieved result through this research is the forming of students' attitude and behavior which based on information technology. This can be proven by students' need toward internet, whether to find learning source, communicate, or developing various learning model. The forming of this attitude changes students’ mindset from depending on transfer of knowledge (one way from lecturer to students) to transaction of knowledge, where when students feel necessary they will seek to the source themselves. It describes the constructive learning pattern.

In summary, students' attitude and behavior toward information technology will change along with knowledge and experience they get through blended & e-learning. With the changes of their attitude and behavior toward information technology, the spread of information technology will be easier and meaningful since learning pattern will happen in two ways. The result of this research recommends us in considering the usage of blended & e-learning model within a school subject as an alternative if we want to transform learning pattern into transaction pattern.

Keyword: Attitude and behavior, experience, information technology, blended and e-learning

INTRODUCTION
The economic progress phenomenon in East Asia basically reconciles toward achievement factors in doing product diversification based on market demand, skill of mastering fast technology through reverse engineering (e.g. computer clone), the amount of people’s saving, good education, and work ethos (Ade Cahyana, 1998). People, company, or countries who own education, skill, creation, and efficiently spread education will gain first chance within global competition nowadays (Cisco, 2001). This shows that education oriented in mastering technology is a must.

Along with development of innovation in information technology area, education and learning sources have become very accessible. This innovation has changed the paradigm of education from constant gain of knowledge and skill after education stage toward the paradigm of fast changing knowledge and skill. The progress of instructional technology supported by development in information technology and communication accelerates education to develop faster according to the need of education in achieving knowledge base society.

In globalization era, the chance of a country to own high and continuity growth will get higher if supported by human resources who own knowledge and basic skill to adapt themselves with demands in progress, higher education, background skill in knowledge and technology, and the ability to produce products which are capable to compete in global scale, both in quality and price.

Indonesian will have difficulties to use the chance as explain above if they don’t give better attention in education. Education crisis in Indonesia, seen from the quality, spreading, or other efficiency in handling, has been going on for too long. Objectively, education system in Indonesia has been through quality crisis since mid 1970, when pattern in education development were done in bureaucracy and centralize, which endanger the human resources (Ace Suryadi, 1998). One visible example is the student’s achievement that far behind international standard. One of the factors causes low education level is the lack of development in education facilities. This has caused student’s lack of experience. Beside limitation in facilities, teachers’ urge to develop innovation within education is still low (Hansiswany Kamarga, 2007). Based on the condition mentioned, it is necessary to fix the education in Indonesia, and one aspect has potential to be developed is through information technology base education.

There are several reasons why it necessary to develop information technology base education in Indonesia. First, the fact that education is a media to develop human resources is fully aware, nevertheless without the availability of ideal facilities the statement above will be nothing but just a statement on paper. Physical education facilities in Indonesia are very limited, while the number of human resources who need education development is increasing which makes information technology base education development (e.g. the development in long distance education) has become a highly necessity. Second, industrial development needs fixing in human resources, which causes the demand of more variation in education facilities. The limitation in physical conventional education facilities and the lack of possibility to achieve a more variation in education according to market’s need has caused Indonesian education quality left behind. Third, the development of information technology base education system will accelerate the chance to gain education beside the fixing of education quality itself. Forth, Indonesia’s various geographic condition, ranging from cities to deserted area divided by many straits and seas, seriously needs to consider development in education base on information technology, since that kind of education system’s development will be very helpful in spreading and fixing education in Indonesia.

Although it has been identified that information technology base education development is needed in Indonesia, in real life it’s on the contrary. In majority, master students come from many areas in Indonesia, and most of them are still lack in knowledge and skill of information technology, some are even still unfamiliar in using computer. In one hand, curriculum in magisterial program Curriculum Development demands students’ skill to use information technology and develop learning that base on information technology, but in reality there are still many students who know nothing about technology itself. This has been seen as an obstacle, which delivers a problem of how to shape attitude and behavior base on information technology through learning in order to achieve students’ need in information technology skill.

PROBLEM AND PURPOSE
To overcome the identified problem mentioned in background, it is necessary to digest on how to design a learning that capable to guide students in mastering information technology. Going deeper, mastering the information technology is more than simply mastering the skill, but must based on the changing of mind set in information base thinking. That kind of mind set can be observed through the forming of behavior and attitude which based on information technology. Based on description above, this research is focused on How implementation of curriculum Information System in Education is designed to achieve behavior and attitude of information technology students? The research’s focus is developed in research questions as followed.

Is learning through blended & e-learning can form information technology base behavior and attitude?
  1. What kind of blended & e-learning learning model used in this research?
  2. How is the achieved result?
  3. How is the identified forming of information technology base behavior and attitude through out this research?
In general, the research aims to answer problem which integrated with the forming of information technology base behavior and attitude. Specifically, the research aims to:
  1. Describing the model of blended & e-learning learning used in this research
  2. Getting the achieved learning result
  3. Getting the overall view of information technology base behavior and attitude that has been formed through this research.
RESEARCH METHOD
To achieve the objective, the research is being done by using an approach of qualitative study case.
Learning model used in this research is blended & e-learning model, integrated between:
  • face to face model in class (conventional)
  • using internet in class (synchronous), and
  • using distance learning (asynchronous).
Learning proportion are 40% knowledge and 60% skill. Knowledge learning is focused on direct knowledge connected to information technology usage, while skill learning is focused on finding sources and developing information technology base learning model.

The design of this research is using inquiry naturalistic approach where aspects of students’ attitude toward learning by using information technology, students’ behavior toward information technology usage, students’ skill in finding information resources in the internet (browsing), and students’ skill in developing technology base learning are measured through implementing blended & e-learning model. The subject of this research (respondent) is a class of 17 students who are taking Information System within Education curriculum.

In this research, the instruments being used are observation sheets, structured tasks, result test, and data are being collected throughout research and analyzed by using qualitative approach, meaning incoming data are straightly being analyzed. Describing the result of class observation and students’ tasks are being done through continuous qualitative analysis enable us to see the happening changes. Data of learning result are generated by using profile technique which enable us to describe overall result from students’ learning.

RESEARCH OUTCOMES  
Blended & e-learning that is being used
The design of blended & e-learning model that is being used is the combination of 40% theory and 60% practice. Students take classes in computer lab, where each student face computer with internet access. The first five times is used by lecture to give theory.

The way the lecture is designed is the following activity would be a presentation where the topic is about understanding computer as learning tool, multimedia, distance education, and online learning. These four topics are given in order to make the students think and find their own understanding toward information technology base thinking concepts. Although main elements of these topics are taken from resource book (Heinich, et al, Instruction Technology and Media for Learning, 2005), students are still being asked to complete the rest of the elements by looking for the sources through the internet. The strategy used in this part of learning is by using the internet in class (synchronous).

After mid semester, lecture is designed by students’ paper presentation which, discussing about various learning model that can be improved through information technology base learning such as webpage, chatting, newsgroup, learning by using e-book, e-news, e-dictionary, e-laboratory. In this part students are asked to develop their ability to design an information technology base learning form.

From three forms of approached used for one semester lecture, we can see a form that describe these learning steps (a) the transfer of information technology knowledge in a face to face conventional way done in class, (b) inquiry learning by giving the students task to search for a broader information about concepts that are necessary to be understood in information technology by internet browsing, and transaction learning with the pattern of students’ presentation which shows their capability to develop information technology base education.

LEARNING PROCESS
For theory introduction, a lecture method is given in class with following topics: The Basic Concept of Information, The Basic Concept of System and Information System, The Development of Internet Technology and Problems found in scientific writing in the internet, E-education and electronic education system.

For practice introduction about things are used when accessing the internet, by using practice method of internet access the students are requested to make email account, develop mailing list whose members are the whole students in class so they can communicate at the same time.

Skills being developed during internet usage in class are (a) communicating through email, (b) communicating through mailing list, (c) internet browsing in order to find articles related to the task of making annotated bibliography, task of making presentation about information base technology thinking concepts, (d) developing a model or an information technology base learning approach.

* The achieved learning result
The achieved result throughout one semester lecture is showing an increasing graphic for students’ learning result. (a) Annotated bibliography is the achieved result on the beginning of class where students are asked to do browsing in searching articles related to their annotated bibliography elements. (b) Presentation is the result gained through students achievement toward understanding topic to information technology base thinking concepts. (c) Storyboard is the result of students’ development toward information base technology learning model. (d) Final Semester Exam is final exam achieved by students. Overall the result is shown in the following table.

Judging from the timing of marking where the aspects of annotated bibliography, presentation, storyboard, and final exam are tasks given in chronological orders since beginning until end of semester, we can see the decreasing of mark within the score range of 61-70 and the increasing of mark within score range 81-90.

* The forming of attitude and behavior based on information technology
Attitude and behavior based on Information technology is being judged from observation during the lecture. Assuming that on the beginning there are very few students have the ability to use information technology, after one semester lecture period the following result shows.
  • The aspects of students’ behavior toward learning by using information technology
  • Every student uses laptop during lectures outside the lecture of information system within education
  • Every time they find concept/ phrase that is not understood after finding for themselves through wikipedia.com or internet
  • They access lecture materials through lecturer’s website
  • Communication is built through mailing list
  • The students’ behavior toward the usage of information technology
  • Distribution of tasks are done by using mailing list instead of photo copying
  • Communication with lecturer is built through email
  • Students that are out of town is sending their test answers through email
  • The students’ skill in finding information resources in the internet (browsing)
* Completing annotated bibliography through sources in the internet
* More than 50% of the reference used for task came from the sources in the internet
  • The students’ skill in developing internet technology base learning
* Using webquest.com (interactive)
* Developing virtual magazine
* Developing learning site using pbwiki.com
* Developing dictionary for local language

DICCUSSION
Introducing the Information Technology to student is not only to train them in using Information Technology, but the first and main are to change their mind set to make them want to use Information Technology in academic life. It is easy to train the student in using computer and internet, but to form attitude and behavior (alter mind set) that base on Information Technology is not easy. For example, in training student for opening mail box, writing and delivering email is not difficult, but form attitude and student behavior in order to open their mail box everyday, conducted communication through email, is not easy.

Ari Wibowo (2006 : 1) explain that the result of a study is Information Transfer, Skill Acquisition, Change of mental model, whereas in designing a lesson or curriculum require correspondence between target learn and instruction model. Study model can be classified into Instructor Centered, Learner Centered, Learning Team Centered. Furthermore it is described the relation between target learn and model as follows

Base on the picture above, mental change (in this case mind set) can be conducted if study far from models teacher centered and more develop learner centered or learning team. This Idea is based on the philosophy of constructivist that have a notion that learners are not empty vessels waiting to be filled, but rather as active organisms seeking meaning (Driscoll, 1994 in Chang Chew Hungs, 2007). In this case Sherry (1996) give emphasis at study strategy that guided practice, media based challenges, inquiry learning, and teamwork, that make proper developed to reach target the student makes sense and constructs new knowledge from the information which is presented. That is can be told that study that its centre on acquirement, the student is not only transfer knowledge but more than that, they can alter mental or mind set study.

Model blended & e-learning is designed to fulfill the need of mastering Information Technology and form attitude and behavior base on Information Technology. In general, the term blended learning is used to describe a solution that combines several different delivery methods. These can be a mix of various even-based activities such as face to face classrooms, live e-learning and sharing software, and self-paced learning. Some people consider blended e-learning to be the use of a variety of online delivery methods to present content and activities to learners. Thus with this approach, the entire course still remains online, but uses a blend of materials to present the content. (Nicholson, 2003). Because of this model gathers various of methods, so it give a chance to student to expand more optimal, either through structured study or through the study with inquiry approach.

Research Result shows that with structured steps and continual, beginning from recognition in theoretic then continued with recognition in practice, and accustomed use Information Technology, then will be formed attitude and student behavior that base on Information Technology. This research Result shows compatibility between what Ari Wibowo said with the theory of constructivist, it means that study which is designed with student centre on and developed through inquiry approach will give affects to attitude forming and behavior.
This attitude Forming is change the student way of thinking from that initially expect transfer of knowledge (from lecturer to student in one way) become transaction knowledge, that is if student feel that it is important for them to search its source, as the same manner as that told Chang Chew Hung (2007 : 8), constructivism resides the fundamental premise that learners actively construct their knowledge. Besides that, by study model blended & e-learning, student not only have a skill to use Information Technology but more than that, they can think, behave, and have the behavior that base on Information Technology, as expressed by Chang Chew Hung (2007 : 8), learners develop critical insight into how they think, and what they know about the world develops, as their understanding increases in depth and detail.

CONCLUSIONS
That can be concluded that attitude and student behavior toward Information Technology will be change along with knowledge and experience that the they have through blended & e-learning study. With the change of attitude and student behavior toward Information Technology, the Information Technology dissemination will be easier and have a meaning because study pattern that happening is two directions pattern. This research Result recommends that if we want to change/alter study pattern into transaction pattern, the usage of model blended & e-learning through one of course becomes justifiable alternative.

REFERENCES
Ace Suryadi, (1998). Manajemen Pendidikan Nasional Menuju Kemandirian Bangsa : Gagasan Awal. 

Available at http://www.pdk.go.id/Kajian/Kajian14/ace14.htm

Ade Cahyana (1998). Tujuan Pendidikan untuk Pembangunan : Mencari Alternatif Reformasi Pembangunan Pendidikan. Available at http://www.pdk.go.id/Kajian/ Kajian14/ade14.htm

Hansiswany Kamarga (2007). Developing Distance Learning with Dual Mode at School of Postgraduate Indonesia University of Education , Paper.

Heinich, R. et al. (2005). Instructional Technology and Media for Learning. Eighth Edition. New Jersey : Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Chang Chew Hung. (2007). Engaging Learning Through the Internet : WebQuests in the Humanities Classroom. Singapore : Pearson Prentice Hall.

FX Ari Wibowo (2006). Distributed Learning : Sebuah Konsep Teleeducation. Available at http://www.gematel.com/qanews/qanewsonline/edisi%20VI/Distributed%20-Learning.html

Orton, S. (2003). Blending e-learning with curriculum design. Available at http://www.swap.ac.uk/elearning/using3.asp

Nicholson, M.J. (2003). Models of Blended eLearning. Available at http://iit.bloomu.edu /etraining/Models/models.htm
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